COSA Casualties of Sexual Allegations Newsletter April 1996 Volume 3 No 3
Contents of this page
Editorial: Rape:10 years’ progress? the DSAC Multi-disciplinary Conference was attended by approximately 230 participants including judges, lawyers, DSAC doctors, police, sexual abuse counsellors, and visiting American speaker Mary Koss. The atmosphere was intimidating. When ACC Sensitive Claims Manager Linda Angus sugested there should be some accountability of counsellors receiving ACC funding, there was an audibly negative response from the audience.
Man takes case to Criminal Justice Commission A 59 year old Queensland man, cleared by the courts of sexually abusing his daughter when she was a child, is taking his case to the CJC. (Australia).
Counselling Psychologist This special issue of this journal contains a major review article on the recovered memory debate and then 4 commentators on this paper.
Features: Graham – Case history
Rape:10 years’ progress?
I have just returned from attending the DSAC Multi-disciplinary Conference: "Rape:10 years’ progress?" attended by approximately 230 participants including judges, lawyers, DSAC doctors, police and sexual abuse counsellors.
The conference was convened to assess the effect of the numerous changes in the law in favour of the complainant, which have been introduced in the past 11 years (along with associated policies and practices). The law changes include:
- Abolition of law of spousal immunity in rape (now acknowledges rape within marriage);
- Introduction of the new offence of sexual violation, which recognises the seriousness of sexual assaults other than rape;
- Allowing the conviction of children under 14 with the charge of rape;
- An honest belief of the defendant that consent was given by the complainant no longer being accepted as a defence if the belief is said to be "unreasonable";
- Removal of the requirement for judges to caution juries about the dangers of conviction in the absence of corroboration;
- Restrictions on asking the complainant about her sexual experiences with others;
- Taking the complainant’s views into account when considering bail;
- Use of victim-impact reports at sentencing.
I had submitted a paper for consideration, but it had been rejected on the grounds that the subject matter would be covered by others during the conference. Entitled "Victim-orientated law reforms: advantages and pitfalls", my proposed paper [or workshop] addressed issues arising from the well-needed reforms introduced in the past one to two decades aimed at treating rape complainants with consideration and compassion, and minimising the stress endured by undergoing the judicial process when making a complaint.
It argued that procedures which offer advocacy and support for the complainant can lead to a effective presumption of guilt of the alleged perpetrator and erosion of the principle of impartiality. The difficulty of gaining a conviction when a rape has occurred but no forensic evidence is available was weighed against the dangers of conviction in the absence of corroboration. Issues regarding (mis) interpretation of consent and the effects of an expanded definition of rape were discussed, and the growing "backlash" from concerned academics and members of the legal profession examined.
I felt that these concerns were not addressed at this conference. Whilst there were defence lawyers on three panels, and sociology lecturer Greg Newbold on another, there was no serious discussion of the suggestion that the reforms might have swung the scales of justice too far in favour of the alleged victim. Several speakers did acknowledge that false complaints can happen, but this was considered a very rare event which must be weighed against the devastation caused by not believing a rape complainant.
On the odd occasion that a speaker did offer an contrary opinion, the reaction was intimidating. For example, when ACC Sensitive Claims Manager Linda Angus concluded that because ACC was funding sexual abuse counselling to the tune of about $20 million per year, there should be some accountability of counsellors receiving the funding, there was an audibly negative response from the audience.
There was continual emphasis on the importance of believing a complainant by police and other professionals, and in fact the main criticism of the police was when they approached a case sceptically and focused on looking at gaps in the evidence rather than supporting the victim. Indeed, the word "victim" was used synonymously with "complainant" as was "offender" with "accused"; seldom was the qualification "alleged victim" or "alleged offender" used even when the initial complaint was being discussed. The issue was never addressed that believing the victim meant there was a presumption of guilt, and that police, doctors, counsellors and lawyers had therefore already effectively conducted the trial in their heads.
It was reported that 45% of those cases reported to the police were considered unfounded – that is, cleared by police as disclosing no offence. The audience were assured however that this is not because the police did not believe the complainant, but because there was insufficient evidence to proceed.
Of cases which go to trial, about 50% result in acquittals. Chief Justice Sir Thomas Eichelbaum offered a number of reasons why defendants might be found not guilty, including juries not being prepared to go far enough, and the public perception with respect to sentencing. The possibility that one of the reasons might be because some of those charged are truly innocent, was not suggested (although he does acknowledge later in his address that "not all defendants are necessarily guilty"). I was in fact surprised that half those charged are acquitted, an impression which I believe is not adequately portrayed by the media, who often fail to report when someone has been found not guilty. Whilst some who are acquitted may actually be guilty, this prevailing attitude means that once rape allegations have been made, even a successful defence in court does not allow the accused to fully clear his name.
Whilst broadening the net might allow for more genuine offenders to be caught by the system, I believe it has resulted in an unacceptable number of innocent people being trapped in the process.
Hamish Dixon (Wellington STOP programme for offenders) made a comment along the lines of: "We are quite good at educating young women about their rights, but still have a long way to go to teach young men about their responsibilities". This was greatly applauded, and there was no consideration of the possibility that men also have rights, and women also have responsibilities.
Visiting American speaker Mary Koss approved of moves to broaden the definition of rape to include situations where even though a woman consented, she was unable to really give free consent because of her situation. For example, if a couple have sexual intercourse whilst drunk, and the woman freely participated in or even initiated sexual activity at the time, but later regretted her behaviour, the man could be charged with rape because she was unable to give consent by virtue of intoxication (and it might be said that "he got her drunk"). In other words, she is not responsible for her behaviour because she was drunk; he however is held responsible not only for engaging in intercourse but also for her drinking. Professor Koss even offered for consideration American feminist Catherine MacKinnon’s statement that because women are dependent on men, "When material conditions preclude 99% of your options, it is not meaningful to call the remaining 1% consent". In other words, women cannot freely give consent, and all acts of sexual intercourse are effectively rape.
I fully acknowledge that women are being raped in our society and have witnessed first hand the trauma they can suffer. I thoroughly agree that reforms were needed to reduce the brutality of a rape trial for a woman laying a complaint. We need to treat complainants with compassion and respect, but similarly we should treat all those accused in the same manner. The hallmark of a democracy is "innocent until proven guilty" and a judicial system is supposed to operate from a place of neutrality, examining the evidence for an allegation objectively and deciding whether a crime has been proved "beyond reasonable doubt". The impartiality of this system has been seriously compromised by the practices of validating and supporting complainants at the expense of the accused.
This opinion was a very unpopular one at the DSAC conference and I experienced considerable hostility at my presence from a number of the participants. I am disturbed at how far the "believe the victim" mentality has infiltrated our judicial and social systems. I know many professionals who share my views, including lawyers, judges, police, doctors and psychologists, but they, like myself, were not invited to address this conference. DSAC executive members say that I should not be allowed to speak because I "do not give a balanced view". Clearly one’s perception of balance is affected by where one stands, but the weight of information presented at this conference was almost exclusively in favour of the rape complainant against the defendant. The pendulum has swung to one extreme. One of COSA’s primary objectives is the development of a society where men and women enjoy equal rights and responsibilities.
In last month’s editorial, the case was discussed where a niece was awarded exemplary damages from her dead uncle’s estate. We reported that the man’s wife and family contested the claim. It has now been clarified that it was not the man’s widow, but his ex-wife and children from a previous marriage, who defended the action.
Sportsman acquitted of sex offences
On 15 March a High Court judge acquitted and discharged a prominent sportsman accused of sexually molesting a 4 year old girl. The complainant’s evidence was found to be unreliable, inconsistent and absurd. Justice Baragwanath discharged the man saying that a conviction on the basis of the evidence would be unsafe and that it was proper that the case be taken from the jury.
He also ruled permanent name suppression on the grounds that despite acquittal, the public might think that where there was smoke there was fire, and the burden of such gossip and chatter for the man was unjustified.
Girl admits lying about alleged sex abuse
In Feb this year a 12 year old girl testified from behind screens in the New Plymouth High Court that her mother had sexually abused her in the bath. However, during cross-examination she retracted the allegations, and admitted that she had lied to her de-facto stepmother about being touched by her mother from the time her parents broke up. She also admitted lying about an earlier sexual abuse allegation involving a friend of her father’s.
Justice Morris dismissed the case under section 347 of the crimes Act.
Woman makes false rape claim
A 23 year old unemployed Hamilton woman was convicted in March 1996 of making a false rape complaint. She had told the police in October last year that she had been raped, and named a suspect. Later she admitted that the complaint was false, but she wanted to get revenge on the person who had upset her. She had also made 2 false assault charges against other people, for the same motives.
District Court judge Rea sentenced her to a six month community programme with the Hamilton Apostolic trust.
(New Zealand Herald, 6 March 1996)
Man takes case to Criminal Justice Commission
A 59 year old Queensland man, cleared by the courts of sexually abusing his daughter when she was a child, is taking his case to the Criminal Justice Commission.
The man says the police pressed ahead with charges despite a mountain of evidence supporting his denial of her claims. He faced 26 charges including rape, when his daughter was aged 3 to 23 (1972 to 1984). She had attended psychiatrists in Brisbane in 1987 for unexplained back and knee pains and asthma attacks. She was told her symptoms were those of a victim of child sexual abuse, and was given a book about repressed memories. She subsequently recovered her memories, and 1st made allegations against her father in 1992. He was arrested in Feb 1995. A jury found him not guilty on all counts.
Man acquitted of historical allegations
A Palmerston North High Court jury found Shannon farmer Ashley Smith was not guilty of 18 sexual abuse charges. The case involved two male and three female complainants claiming offences such as sodomy, rape and a series of indecent assaults. Some charges were withdrawn by the Crown before and during the trial. The allegations covered a 19 year period from 1959 to 1978.
Invalid beneficiary found not guilty
Anthony Johnston, a 50 year old Christchurch invalid beneficiary, was found not guilty by a District Court jury of indecently assaulting a 5 year old girl of his acquaintance. The girl’s testimony contained a number of demonstrated untruths and inconsistencies, including disparity in her evidence with what she had previously told her parents had occurred.
Gerald and Barbara Hill cleared
Prosecutors have dropped all charges against Barbara and Gerald Hill, accused earlier this year of repeated raping their children (aged 5, 10, 11 and 12), injecting them with drugs and feeding them on rats and roaches.
The children have since retracted their claims, which were made when in the care of an elder brother. It has been said that the accusations were provoked by the brother’s fiancee. The children continue to maintain that their initial allegations were untrue.
(NZ Herald 22 Mar 1996)
Texas throws out recovered memory
On the 14 March the Texas Supreme Court threw out a woman’s lawsuit against her father for alleged child sexual abuse, based on memories she said she had previously repressed. The alleged abuse was supposed to have started when she was 3 and continued until age 15, and the woman had sued her father in 1991 for damages of $10 million. The man has consistently denied the allegations.
Although the statute of limitations had expired, she claimed that she had only recently recovered the memories and hence only known about the harm from that time.
There was no evidence that could be verified independently of her repressed memories, and the court did not consider the testimony from an expert verifying repressed memories was adequate evidence. The decision to throw out the woman’s case was 8 judges for to one against.
Repressed memory testimony ruled inadmissible in other States
A number of other jurisdictions have also recently ruled "repressed memory" testimony inadmissible.
These include the State of New Hampshire (State v Hungerford, Case No 94-S-045 to 94-S-047); the State of North Carolina (Barrett v Hyldburg, Case No 95 CvS 793); and the State of California (Engstrom v Engstrom, case No VC016157). These issues are also under consideration by the courts in the States of Washington, New Jersey and Tennessee.
Filings from the above 3 decisions can be ordered from the FMS Foundation Brief Bank index, #830.
Psychotherapist surrenders her license
In 1989, 8 year old Alicia Wade was raped and sodomised by a stranger who entered her bedroom window. Authorities did not believe her story and accused Alicia’s own father, Jim Wade, of the crime. The girl was taken into foster-care and sent to twice-weekly therapy with Psychotherapist Kathleen Goodfriend. For 13 months she refused to name her father as the offender, despite considerable pressure to do so. After being told she could go home if she named her dad, she did so. However, child welfare then recommended she be adopted by her foster parents, and Jim Wade was arrested. Her mother attempted suicide.
In 1991, previously overlooked semen stains were found on Alicia’s clothes. DNA testing cleared her father and charges were dropped. The girl returned home in Nov 1991.
DNA testing later implicated Albert Carder, a man who had been convicted of attacking 4 other girls in the same neighbourhood about the same time. In at least 2 of these offences Carder had entered through a bedroom window. He pleaded guilty to raping Alicia in Mar 1995.
In 1994 the Wade family settled a $3.7 million law suit against Goodfriend, social workers prosecutors and others involved in the case. Of that, $1 million came from Goodfriend.
The therapist has continued to claim that she did nothing wrong in her treatment. However she faced state disciplinary hearings alleging that she coerced Alicia into falsely identifying her father as the attacker. On the eve of the hearing she surrendered her counselling license.
Menendez brothers found guilty of murdering their parents
Erik and Lyle Menedez (now 28 and 25 years old) cold-bloodedly killed their parents with shotguns in 1989. They were charged with murdering them for their $US million estate, and would face a death penalty if convicted.
Their first trial ended in a hung jury after defence lawyers persuaded enough jurors that the brothers killed their parents after years of psychological, physical and sexual abuse.
On retrial this month, a second jury did not accept the "victims of incest and abuse" defence, and found them both guilty of murder.
Ex-teacher faces sex abuse suit
A 25 year old man, Randy Burkholz, is suing his former school teacher Jack Joyce (now aged 66) for $20 million, claiming he sexually abused him between 1981 and 1988.
Burkholtz claims he only recalled the abuse last year during therapy sessions.
Recovered memory therapy: false memory syndrome and other complications
McElroy, Susan; Keck, Paul (Dec 1995), Psychiatric Annals, 25 (12), 731-5.
This paper questions the theoretical rationale, the efficacy and safety of recovered memory theory. It gives a case history of a patient who had attempted to uncover repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse with 2 different therapists during the prior 2 years, with no apparent benefit but many deleterious effects from the treatment. The paper concludes that recovered memory therapy should be considered "investigational, and that patients should be informed of its experimental (and controversial) nature and potential adverse effects before agreeing to pursue it".
Rethinking per se exclusions of hypnotically elicited recall as legal testimony
Perry, Campbell; Orne, Martin; London, Ray; Orne, Emily (Jan 1996), International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, XLIV, 66-81.
Many studies have demonstrated that hypnosis is likely to lead to an increased recall of both accurate and erroneous material but a greater confidence that it is true. Given the potential for contamination of testimony once memory has been influenced by hypnosis, this paper makes a strong case for such testimony to be excluded as evidence in courts.
Assessing child maltreatment reports: the trouble with false allegations
(1991) edited by Michael Robins, Haworth Press, England.
This book contains a series of papers by commentators addressing the difficulties in distinguishing between true and untrue allegations, and the unwillingness of the professional community to acknowledge that there is a problem and take steps to prevent false allegations, or make amends when mistakes occur.
Includes sections on clinical evaluations of sexual abuse, and allegations arising in the context of custody/visitation disputes.
Counselling Psychologist (April 1995)
23 (2), 181-314.
This special issue of this journal contains a major review article on the recovered memory debate and then 4 commentators on this paper.
The review article is:
Enns C; McNeilly C; Corkery J; Gilbert M. ‘The debate about delayed memories of child sexual abuse: a feminist perspective’, 181-279.
Whilst this paper seriously addresses some of the issues regarding memory repression theory, it fails to allow for the possibility that completely false memories are being generated in therapy.
Three of the commentator papers applaud and endorse Enns et al.’s article:
Courtois, Christine. ‘Scientist-practitioners and the delayed memory controversy: scientific standards and the need for collaboration’, 294-9;
Briere, John. ‘Science versus politics in the delayed memory debate: a commentary’, 290-3;
Brown, Laura. ‘Toward not forgetting: the science and politics of memory’, 310-4.
The 4th paper challenges some of the assumptions in the Enns article, whilst emphasising that a concern about illusionary memories created by therapy should not be construed as denial that child sexual abuse can and does happen:
Lindsay, Stephen. ‘Beyond backlash: comments on Enns, McNeilly, Corkery and Gilbert’, 280-9.
Police files on child abuse case found at dump
An investigation is being conducted as to why bags of police documents containing details of a child abuse case and named victim impact statements were found at a dump 30 km south of Westport. The bag also contained about a kilogram of cannabis. The Westport police claim that they usually incinerate cannabis and bury their rubbish at the local tip; however they confirm that the material found is genuine.
(Evening Post, 12 Feb 1996)
Law student falsely accused of rape
Hamilton law student Nick Wills was accused of brutally raping a woman called Wendy who lived in his hall of residence. She described a detailed assault and also named him as a serial rapist. At the time in question he was in fact not at home, but out at a bar with a good friend. The police however ignored the evidence of his alibi and charged him. He lost his job as warden of the residence, was subject to harassment and there was a planned poster campaign to publish his name on campus (not actioned on legal advice). He faced about 9 years in prison if convicted.
Nick, his parents Bruce Wills, previously a police detective, and Viv D’Or, a researcher, and his lawyer, Warren Scotter, were horrified at the presumption of guilt by the police and conducted their own investigation. Amongst other things they discovered that Wendy had a rich fantasy life and told friends many untrue stories such as her father owning his own plane. They also established further alibis for Nick.
This information was given to the police, and when they had demonstrated that Wendy was consistently lying to them, she admitted that she had never been raped.
Wendy was convicted of making a false complaint, sentenced to 150 hours community service and to pay Nick Wills $5000. Although the judge recommended her name be made public, Wendy with the support of Rape Crisis managed to obtain name suppression through the courts.
Wendy has now changed her story again to say that she was really raped, but it was a case of mistaken identity. This is the version believed by Rape Crisis spokeswoman Toni Allwood, who said how easy it is for a traumatised woman to make a mistake, and spoke of the desperation of victims to be believed. She felt that Wendy had been "very harshly punished" by the courts and was outraged at the suggestion that what had happened to Nick was in any way comparable to the effects of rape – such an idea "minimised the reality of rape" and "could only be made by a man".
I would suggest that the trauma Nick suffered from Wendy’s false allegations was considerable. He lost his job and had to endure the reaction of people who believed her; he faced a long prison sentence, the destruction of his career and the life-long effects of a rape conviction; he felt betrayed by the system he had confidence in to protect him; and it cost him $20,000. His parents also suffered extreme distress. Rape victims often describe their loss of trust in men; men who are falsely accused similarly become distrustful of women as well as the justice system which they had believed would protect the innocent.
(60 Minutes, TV 1, 31 March 1996)
Judge stops rape trial
When she was pregnant with her daughter, Sonia Hopkins attended a counsellor and told her allegations of how a man she had been taught to respect had urinated on her when she was a young child, fondled her and then raped her when she was 10. At the counsellor’s suggestion, Sonya reported the alleged crimes to the police. The man was charged, he adamantly denied all allegations and a trial progressed. However, the accused is an ill and elderly man and he collapsed during the trial, and then required major heart surgery.
The judge has stopped the trial, as there is considerable risk that proceeding could lead to a further heart attack, possibly fatal. He mentioned that "there were a number of collateral factual matters which were contested by the accused, but his heart attack prevented that evidence from being called. Even without that evidence, it is my impression that an acquittal was, at the very least, as likely as a conviction".
The Listener article telling this story painted a very emotional scene of a complainant cheated of justice, and the implication that the accused was definitely guilty. Her option of taking a civil action against him was discussed, given that a lower standard of proof is required.
The story concludes with a quote from the detective on Sonia’s case: "Sonia can go away from this knowing that she has told her story and it has been believed by the police, the victim support workers and the Crown. She was believed".
(‘A cry in vain’, Listener, 30 Mar 1996)
Eileen Franklin-Lipsker recovers memories of 2 more murders
The woman who persuaded a 1989 jury to convict her father (George Franklin) of murder on the basis of her recovered memories, has recently recalled 2 other murders allegedly conducted by her father, with the assistance of her step-father.
She claims seeing them strangle a young woman in a wood, and also being involved in another killing in the mid-1970s.
Police have eliminated all but one unsolved murder from the period ( a 1976 rape-murder), and semen samples have ruled out her father and stepfather. Franklin’s conviction was overturned last year.
(Rocky Mountain News, 22 Feb 1996, p A36)
Graham – Case history
Names and details of case histories are changed to avoid identification of those involved. Please contact the Editor if you would like to have your case presented.
In 1991 Graham was accused of sexually abusing his two step-daughters Hannah and Irene when they were 14 and 13 years of age during the mid 1980s. Graham had overwhelming evidence to disprove the allegations, but he found himself "prejudged guilty" by the authorities, and the matter proceeded to court. He was found not guilty on all charges, but his defence cost him his life savings of 40 years. Evidence heard by the court included testimony from a social worker assigned to the older girl, Hannah, who gave details of her frequent "scheming and making up stories". A former foster-parent of the girl also gave similar testimony. Hannah admitted in court of having made up sexual allegations against other men in the past.
Both girls were paid $10,000 in compensation by ACC. The younger step-daughter has since admitted that the allegations were untrue. Graham’s wife Katherine, who is the girls’ mother, was always sure the accusations were false, and believed they had partly arisen through their resentment of his marrying her.
Four years later, in 1995, the elder sister again laid charges against Graham (now aged 68). This time he was alleged to have molested Hannah’s 3 year old daughter, Jasmine. Apparently the little girl had initially claimed that Larry, a boarder living in the house with her and her mother, had touched her vagina. Larry and Hannah talked to the little girl and insisted it could not have happened, but asked whom else it might have been. The girl later named her "Poppa" Graham as having done it.
The transcript of Jasmine’s videotape interview by a CYPS social worker shows gross inconsistencies in her story. The child does not know her own age, and is unable to adequately answer questions about "truth" and ‘lies". Although under prompting she does say that "Poppa touched me down on the gigga" she also answers "Poppa" when asked who gives her "good touches that she likes". Many of her responses are clearly choosing one of the two alternatives offered in the closed questions she is asked. For example:
Interviewer: Did it just happen once or more than once?
Jasmine: More than once.
Interviewer: So how many times might it have happened?
Jasmine: Don’t know. Only one time.
Despite the history of the complaint and the nature of her testimony, Graham was again arrested and charged. His charges were dropped in Dec 1994 when the evidence was presented at a District Court depositions hearing.
Newsletters received by COSA
DSAC newsletter Issue 8 March 1996
Includes report on Arnon Bentovim’s visit which appeared to emphasis "believing the child". Participants in this conference were taught that studies have shown that false allegations occur less than 8% of cases; one study found 0.2%. However the definition used for false allegations is only where it is proved that an intentional and malicious false allegation has been made. Also taught was the idea that children under the age of 6 "do not recall as easily as those over 6 and often need more than one interview". This is despite evidence which indicates that repeating an interview in which a young child who initially says nothing has happened may eventually result in her (or him) making a false claim.
Other topics covered include DSAC’s project to submit a report on "Memories and past sexual abuse" to the New Zealand Medical Association, and DSAC executive’s recent attendance in a media training workshop.
FMS Foundation Newsletter 5 (3) 1 March 1996
Up to its usual excellent standard, this newsletter is jammed full of news briefs, legal judgements and literature reviews regarding "false memory" issues.
COSA offers a service of posting copies of this newsletter to members at a cost of $30 per year (including postage).
FMS Newsletters Vancouver and Lower Mainland, Canada, Jan 1996 & Feb 1996
Includes ‘Note regarding disclosure to defence of therapy records’ by Barrister Alan Gold who has been successfully defending cases based on recovered memories in Canada.
Notes from the treasurer
AGM: The 1996 AGM is 2pm, Sat 20 April, at the Awataha Marae, 58 Akaranga Drive, Northcote, Auckland. If you have a Notices of Motion please get it to us by a.s.a.p. Just a reminder – if you are visiting from outside of Auckland and need a bed for the night, we can arrange a billet for you.
Advertising COSA: As always, we never have enough money to do all the things necessary, and our Advertising Budget is pretty small. We have placed an advert in Metro Magazine for the whole year, at a cost of $400. One way you could help to spread our message wider afield is to volunteer to pay for and place a small advertisement in your local paper, advertising COSA. They usually cost less than $20 each. There are dozens of community newspapers, and if you selected the biggest one in your area and placed an advert, it would be a great help. If you can help with this, call or write to Colleen. The words for the advert are:
Concerned about or affected by false allegations of sexual abuse? Call COSA at xxx-xxxx.
FMS Newsletters: The False Memory Syndrome Foundation in the USA puts out an excellent monthly newsletter, about 18 pages. Re-printing and posting to individual members costs $30 per year for 11 issues. We urge members to subscribe to this, as it contains much more information than we can afford to put into our own newsletter. All you need do is send your cheque to Colleen, and she will post you your copy each month.
Backcopies & other papers: We have back copies of COSA and FMS Newsletters which you can buy. As well, Felicity has a wide range of specialist and technical papers on many facets of COSA’s areas of interest. Of particular interest to many are the various legal papers and court decisions which are very useful to lawyers when researching cases for our members. These are available at a nominal fee.
Donations: We would like to publicly thank the member who gave a very generous donation of $250. That money will be put to good use, along with all the other donations we have received.
Subscriptions: $15 subscription barely covers cost of production and postage of our monthly newsletter. Along with everything else, this cost has increased. Please note that private subscriptions will be increased to $20, effective from 1 April 1996. Professional subscriptions will remain at the present level of $25. Please don’t let that small increase put you off – we need your assistance and your membership.
Membership: Although our membership has increased strongly in the past year, we ask you to encourage others to join us. We suggest you invite other family members to join, and discuss membership with your friends, doctor and lawyer. If there is someone you believe would find our newsletters of value, you could also consider subscribing on somebody else’s behalf. Every member gives us further strength, and a more powerful voice with government, professionals, the media and the public. Your help in this area would be much appreciated.
Please notify COSA if you know of any recent or coming workshops, seminars and other relevant events.
Public Forum Men’s Health
Organised by Men’s Centre North Shore
Wed 17 April 7.30 pm
Zion Hill Methodist Church, cnr Onewa and Birkenhead Rds, Birkenhead.
Dr John Raeburn on "Nature vs Nurture’