COSA Casualties of Sexual Allegations Newsletter September 1996: Volume 3 No 8
Contents of this page:
Editorial: Skeptics and NZQA We have just returned from the annual Skeptics conference. The AGM unanimously voted to donate $2500.00 to the Peter Ellis Trust, in acknowledgement that the injustice to Ellis is due to beliefs in events with no scientific evidence to support them. One of the of the ‘Bravo’ awards went to Mark McNeil, for his excellent documentary on recovered memories which screened earlier this year.
False memories documentary The 1994 BBC documentary "False Memories", has just screened on TV 1. As our number was publicised, we have been inundated by many, many phonecalls from people with similar tragic stories to tell.
Author of Sex Offender Index sued A man named in the "Paedophile and Sex Offender Index" is suing author Deborah Coddington and publisher Alistair Taylor for $200,000.
Man sues social work agency for false allegations Charles Farrauto was accused of sexually molesting his 4 year old daughter by his ex-wife in the context of a custody dispute. (Canada).
Kniffens are freed after being convicted 12 years ago of molesting their children and being involved in a ‘sex ring’. (USA).
Repressed memory case overturned on appeal In June 1994 John Quattrocchi was found guilty of sexually assaulting his de facto daughter and sentenced to 60 years. (USA)
Therapist pays settlement for implanting false memories of satanic ritual abuse Patricia Rice consulted hypnotherapist Gina Gamage in 1992 for help in losing weight and stopping smoking. Instead she had memories of sexual abuse by Satanists implanted during hypnosis.(USA).
Various Testimony by Carol Lamb Hopkins who has been making a number of submissions to Judicial Councils and Congress about the "gross injustices perpetrated during a 15 year child sexual/physical abuse witchhunt". (USA).
Another politically-correct "knee-jerk" reaction Michael Biddulph, a member of the NSW equal Opportunity Tribunal, created an outcry when he described a plaintiff in a sexual harassment case he was hearing as "not unattractive". (Australia).
Psychological Inquiry This is a special issue on the UFO Abduction phenomenon.
A critical review of recovered memories in psychotherapy: Part I – trauma and memory’ and ‘Part II – trauma and therapy.
The Princess at the Window: a new gender morality book by Donna Lamframboise, a dissident feminist view of men, women and sexual politics.
Dr Ruba Nesk offers treatment for Single Personality Disorder, "the disease that nobody wants to talk about". (Canada).
Features: Newsletters received by COSA
Skeptics and NZQA
We have just returned from a very enjoyable weekend in Hamilton attending the annual Skeptics conference. The Skeptics are the NZ branch of the international Committees for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. The American branch publishes the excellent magazine, Skeptical Inquirer, dedicated to "science and reason". Skeptics are committed to crusading against beliefs in extraordinary events for which there is no supporting evidence. Topics included in this year’s conference included issues regarding science education; the Kaimanawa "wall", and debunking some of the myths about the "greenhouse effect".
To note is the involvement of Skeptic executive and COSA Professional Advisory Board member Dennis Dutton in the newly established Peter Ellis Trust, set up to fund the fight for a Privy Council hearing. The AGM unanimously voted to donate $2500.00 to the Trust, in acknowledgement that the injustice to Peter Ellis is due to beliefs in events with no scientific evidence to support them.
Skeptics traditionally give annual "bricks" and "bouquets" to appropriate individuals and organisations. Of relevance to COSA was one of the of the ‘Bravo’ awards going to Mark McNeil, for his excellent documentary on recovered memories which screened earlier this year, and which featured several COSA members.
The annual ‘Bent Spoon’ award went to the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA). Introduced to give uniformity to the assessment of skills and knowledge in all institutions of learning (trade and vocational, school and academic), in my opinion we have created a monster which wields huge power. Examinations eliminated, NZQA aims to reduce all courses to a series of unit standards, in which students are progressively assessed and awarded credits to be recorded in the NZQA framework. Reducing the curriculum down to tiny stepwise packages leads to a focus on trivia, and does not promote striving for excellence, nor development of critical thinking and problem-solving.
I believe that NZQA is based on the same ideology that has infected so many of our governmental agencies – the cult of promoting the victim. In the desire to ensure that no-one suffers the oppression of "failing" (students who do not achieve the credit can go for re-assessment), reduction to the lowest common denominator means there is no recognition for the "cream" who excel, and leads to the promotion of mediocrity. The unit standard system focuses on assessing process rather than knowledge, and whilst this might be suitable for vocational and practical subjects, it is inappropriate for less task-based academic subjects. This system cannot reward merit – the only option for the bright student is to go for more and more credits, but clearly quantity is not the same as quality.
Students are not all equal in ability and performance, and disciplines are not all equal in the skills and knowledge needed to master them. A qualification in flower arranging is not equivalent to one in quantum physics. Should NZQA succeed in its thrust to include university qualifications onto its framework, intellectual freedom will be lost and the significance of attaining a university degree will be greatly devalued.
It should be noted that the Certificate in Sexual Abuse Counselling Course about which I have expressed concerns (COSA Editorials, June and August) is the only such course to have currently achieved NZQA accreditation. Clearly an in-depth evaluation of the actual content being taught is not an NZQA requirement in granting this.
False memories documentary
The BBC 1994 documentary "False Memories", has just screened on TV 1. In promoting this documentary, the Listener states (31 Aug 1996, p 65) ‘The controversy over whether child abuse memories can been "recovered" seems to have passed’. I’m afraid this is not the case.
Whilst the general public may have adopted a healthy scepticism towards recovered memories, COSA newsletter readers will be well aware that many mental health professionals continue to believe that ongoing sexual abuse in childhood is routinely blocked from memory. The Certificate in Sexual Abuse Counselling Course in September last year taught that child sexual abuse memories are commonly repressed or dissociated (clients will frequently have no memory before therapy), and emphasised the importance of recovering the memories of childhood trauma (including the use of hypnosis and age regression to do so) and believing and validating a client’s story. This course did not include any papers addressing the issue that memory repression and recovery is a controversial topic and that repression has not been scientifically validated.
Other courses teaching psychotherapy and counselling at our universities and technical institutions commonly fail to acknowledge that individuals and families can and are being damaged in New Zealand by uncritical acceptance by therapists of their clients’ recollections of childhood sexual trauma.
The particularly wacky form of recovered memory treatment, Primary Cause Analysis (for detailed description of this, see COSA newsletter Nov 1994 1 (7) p10) which was mentioned on the programme, originated in NZ in the 1950s. It’s inventor Jim Bennett (now deceased) claimed that everyone has been sexually abused but repressed it. There are still a number of therapists trained by him or his followers performing the sort of therapy portrayed in this programme.
We at COSA know of hundreds of families whose lives have been shattered by memories recovered in a similar pattern to that portrayed on "False Memories". Moreover, since our number was publicised last night, we have been inundated by many many phonecalls from people with similar tragic stories to tell.
Boy admits sex claim against his father was a lie
The Crown prosecutor in a New Plymouth District Court alleged that a 40 year old Wanganui man had sexually violated his 8 year old son in the bath. The offence was claimed to have occurred in 1993 when the father came to look after the boy and his brother and sister at his ex-wife’s home while she and her husband attended a funeral.
Defence counsel Pete Brosnahan asked the boy (now aged 10) about a series of other allegations he had made on a second videotaped interview with Denise Loveridge, a CYPS counsellor. On the videotape the boy said his mother and step-father would beat him; that one occasion his parents had "taken everything" from the house and left him alone; that he had driven a car to the police station; and that he had been sexually assaulted by a teenager in Hawera.
When challenged by Brosnahan through closed-circuit television camera, the boy admitted that he had made all the stories up and that he was also lying about his father sexually violating him.
The judge dismissed the charge against his father.
(Taranaki Daily News, 23 July 1996)
Man found not guilty of indecent assault
A 49 year old man was acquitted by a New Plymouth District Court jury of indecently assaulting on of the daughters of a family he had previously boarded with.
He had boarded with a woman (whom he had known since childhood) and her children from late 1993 to mid-1995. The court found that he had touched one of the girl’s vagina whilst she was in her night-clothes, during an occasion when he was baby-sitting the children, but that this was not a sexual act.
(Taranaki Daily News, 3 Aug 1996)
Dougherty freed on bail
David Dougherty has won his Appeal and has been released on bail awaiting a new trial.
Dougherty was convicted of rape of an 11 year old girl in 1992 but 3 scientists have now provided affidavits that the DNA found on the girl’s underwear could not have come from Dougherty (see COSA Newsletter, May 1996, 3 (4), p2-3).
On 19 Aug 1996 the Court of Appeal quashed his convictions after examining this new scientific evidence.
A senior Crown prosecutor, Mr Mark Woolford, said that he expected that a retrial would proceed.
(NZ Herald, 20 Aug 1996)
Compensation award for sacked Christchurch Civic CrÃƒÂ¨che workers being appealed
Last year, the Employment Court awarded $1 million to the 13 workers sacked from the Christchurch City Council’s Civic CrÃƒÂ¨che amid sexual and ritual abuse allegations in 1992 (for which Peter Ellis was found guilty and sentenced to 10 years in 1993). Chief Employment Court Judge Tom Goddard was critical of the city council’s treatment of the workers. The bulk of the money was awarded to the 4 women who were also charged with sexual abuse but who had their allegations dropped by the police.
However the compensation has not yet been paid as the city council appealed the award during a recent Appeal Court hearing. Results of the appeal are pending.
(Star-Times, 18 Aug 1996)
Woman who claims her rape allegations were false may be charged with perjury
A woman told the Whakatane District Court that a 33 year old man charged with raping her was not guilty and that actually intercourse had taken took place with her full consent. She said that she had not agreed to the police laying the charges. She had signed an affidavit because "the police had been harassing her and the pressure was too much", but she had not read it before signing it and nothing contained in it was her words. The woman insisted in giving her evidence during depositions although usually all evidence is by way of hand-up at that hearing. The judge warned her that she was under oath to tell the truth and if she did not she could be charged with perjury. She was declared a "hostile witness" at the request of the police.
Judge David Wilson dismissed the charges against the man but directed the CIB to investigate whether she should be charged with perjury and the defendant charged with being an accomplice to perjury.
(Beacon, Whakatane, 20 & 21 Aug 1996)
Author of Sex Offender Index sued
A man named in the "Paedophile and Sex Offender Index" is suing author Deborah Coddington and publisher Alistair Taylor for $200,000. The man was found guilty in 1992 of the 1977 rape of a 13 year old girl, but he subsequently won an Appeal and had his case discharged by the High Court, which also suppressed his name. The man, a company director, had been found guilty and jailed for 4 years for a 1981 rape charge, also mentioned in the book. He has always clamed his innocence to this charge.
The legal action is based on the claim that the Index referring to the alleged 1972 rape is highly defamatory, has gravely injured the man’s reputation and is in contempt of court.
Coddington has responded: "So a rapist is suing me for calling him a rapist" and says the action will be "absolutely, vigorously, defended".
(Star-Times, Sun 1 Sept 1996)
Man sues social work agency for false allegations
Charles Farrauto of Hamilton, Canada, was accused of sexually molesting his 4 year old daughter by his ex-wife in the context of a custody dispute. He was denied access to his daughter and criminal charges were laid. The charges were thrown out of the criminal court in March 1995 and in October Madame Justice Wallace, a family Court judge, found that Mr Farrauto had touched his daughter’s genitals while washing her, but that this touching was not of a sexual nature. He now has shared custody of his daughter.
The judge criticised the social welfare agency, Children’s Aid Society (CAS), for the inadequate way they had conducted their investigation and their interviewing of the child. CAS were unwilling to consider the possibility that Mr Farrauto might be telling the truth and had concluded that the mother’s accusations were accurate.
Mr Farrauto has launched a lawsuit against CAS for more than $500,000 for negligence in their investigation of the sexual complaint against him.
(Hamilton Spectator Ontario, Canada, 17 Aug 1996)
Defamation suit won by falsely accused grand-parents
A 24 year old Springfield woman, Jennifer Stocker Jessen, claimed that memories of her step-grandfather and grandmother (Ralph and Marjorie Strackes) abusing her surfaced after she hit a possum with a car. She claimed she had blocked the memory from her conscious mind and recovered it after therapy.
US District judge Dean Whipple did not accept her claim. He found no evidence to support her claims and threw out her suit.
The jury hearing the case was allowed to consider the Strackes’ counterclaim and ordered Jessen to pay the couple $62,000 each for defamation.
(St Louis Post-Dispatch, Springfield, 16 Aug 1996)
DNA testing indicates convicted man’s innocence
Joseph Roger O’Dell III has been on death row since his conviction in Sep 1996 for the murder and rape of 44 year old Helen Schartner in Virginia Beach in Feb 1995. The prosecutor’s evidence was based on blood found on O’Dell’s clothes, which was claimed to match the victim’s blood type. O’Dell said the blood had come from a fight with 2 men outside a bar on the night of the murder. The jury did not believe his expert witness, a forensic scientist, who testified that the blood test results were flawed.
O’Dell continue to maintain his innocence and call for DNA testing. In 1989, a judge agreed to authorise DNA tests, because he was concerned that the conviction was based on ‘circumstantial evidence’. In 1990, DNA tests showed that the blood on his shirt could not have come from Schartner, and also was not O’Dell’s. Blood on his coat partially matched Schartner’s, but was not conclusively hers. This evidence supported O’Dell’s account of being in a fight with 2 other men.
O’Dell’s lawyers are to argue his innocence before a 13-judge panel of the 4th US Circuit Court of Appeals.
(Virginia Pilot Norfolk, 4 Dec 1995)
Kniffens are freed
Convicted 12 years ago of molesting their children and being involved in a ‘sex ring’ (see COSA newsletter Jul 96 3 (7), p4) Superior Court judge Stuebbe overturned their convictions following the testimony of their sons, Brian and Brandon, that it had never happened and they had been coerced by social workers and prosecutors into making the allegations.
The District Attorney’s office have decided not to reprosecute the case.
(Bakersfield Californian, 13 Aug 1996)
Repressed memory case overturned on appeal
In June 1994 John Quattrocchi was found guilty of sexually assaulting his de facto daughter (given the fictitious name Gina) and sentenced to 60 years.
When Gina was 3 or 4, in 1978, Quattrocchi had dated her mother. Gina had never known her father, and Quattrocchi had taken on that role. After his relationship finished with her mother in 1981, he had continued this relationship with Gina for 10 years, giving her gifts, reading to her, celebrating holidays, encouraging her career aspirations and paying her private school tuition.
In 1990 Gina became depressed and suicidal, and threatened her mother with a knife or a pair of scissors. She was admitted to Bulter Hospital in 1992 with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (manic depression).
During treatment at the hospital, Gina began to have "flashbacks" and recover memories of Quattrocchi having abused her as a child. Her doctor, Daniel Harrop, changed her diagnosis to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
In May 1992 Gina made a report to the police. She claimed 2 incidents of assault said to have occurred between 1981 and 1983, when she was 7 to 9 years old. She had no recollection of any abuse prior to her admission to hospital.
During the trial, Gina’s testimony was corroborated by her psychiatrist Dr Harrop and psychiatric nurse Kulik who had conducted therapeutic sessions with Gina, during which she had recovered her memories.
In 31 July 1996, a Supreme Court of Rhode Island 4 out of 6 panel judges sustained an appeal (one judge dissented and one did not participate) and remanded Quattrocchi for a new trial. The appeal was sustained on the grounds that a preliminary hearing should have been held pre-trial to decide on the admissibility of evidence based on repressed recollections and flashbacks (ie whether memory repression has been scientifically validated).
(State v John E Quattrocchi, P1/92-3759A)
Therapist pays settlement for implanting false memories of satanic ritual abuse
51 year old Patricia Rice consulted hypnotherapist Gina Gamage in 1992 for help in losing weight and stopping smoking. Instead she had memories of sexual abuse by Satanists implanted during hypnosis. Rice came to believe that the cult was targeting her because she had ‘remembered’ what they had done.
In June 1992 Rice drove around Oregon for 2 days believing that the cult was closing in on her. She caused a head-on collision when she drove across the centre line into oncoming traffic, whilst believing that a "good witch" was "telepathically directing her to safety". She was tried for manslaughter of a man who died in the accident and was found ‘guilty but insane’. She is currently free and in therapy, but will be under the supervision and control of the courts for 20 years.
Rice sued her hypnotherapist Gamage for negligent and harmful therapy in implanting the satanic memories and indirectly causing the death. In a pre-trial mediation, Gamage agreed to pay Rice $700,000 in settlement.
Gamage continues to practice in Vancouver, Washington.
(Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 21 May 1996)
Various Testimony by Carol Lamb Hopkins
United States lobbyist Carol Lamb Hopkins is the member of the House Judiciary Committee and has been making a number of submissions to Judicial Councils and Congress about the "gross injustices perpetrated during a 15 year child sexual/physical abuse witchhunt". Hopkins has had a major influence in having some of these cases overturned (many of which have been documented in COSA newsletters) – for example, the Akiki; Kelly Michaels; Amiraults; Wilcox; Hubbards; Bob Kelly and Dawn Wilson cases.
She has also recently (16 Jul 1996) made an excellent submission to the Judicial Council of California regarding false allegations of sexual molestation during custody disputes.
Another politically-correct "knee-jerk" reaction
Michael Biddulph, a member of the NSW equal Opportunity Tribunal, created an outcry when he described a plaintiff in a sexual harassment case he was hearing as "not unattractive". There were outraged accusations of ‘sexism’ and a media field-day [remarkably similar to the reaction to Justice Morris’ remark last month – Ed].
What was ignored, however, was the context in which Biddulph made his statement, which was in fact registering surprise that a witness from the same workplace (Bankers’ Trust Australia) said that s/he had never heard the plaintiff being propositioned or subjected to the "dirty talk" which was alleged to be the norm in that workplace.
An attractive woman is at least as likely to be the subject of sexual harassment as someone who does not have ‘good looks’. If indeed the female workers were commonly subjected to the type of language and behaviour that was claimed, Biddulph found it unlikely that the plaintiff had not similarly experienced such harassment.
The Role of Mental Imagery in the Creation of False Memories
Hyman, Ira & Pentland, Joel (1996). Journal Of Memory & Language, 35, 101-117.
Important research findings which support other studies demonstrating that children and adults will create false memories of complete, emotional and self-involving events. Also shows the importance of social demands – false memories are particularly likely when the subject is expected to remember by the researcher and when authority figures (eg parents plus experimenter) are in complete agreement that the suggested event really happened.
Psychological Inquiry (International Journal of Peer Commentary and review), 1996, 7 2
This is a special issue on the UFO Abduction phenomenon, with papers by a number of world leading authorities (including Elizabeth Loftus; Steven Lynn; Martin and Emily Orne; David Dingle; Donald Spence; John Mack).
Discussions regarding the hypnotic nature of these pseudomemories and their metaphorical meaning bear striking resemblance to the recovered memory debate, especially with respect to satanic ritual abuse memories.
A critical review of recovered memories in psychotherapy: Part I – trauma and memory’ and ‘Part II – trauma and therapy
Paris, Joel (May 1996). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 201-205; 206-210.
An excellent review of the current state of knowledge on "recovered memories". Concludes with the following clinical implications:
- Memories of childhood experience are not necessarily factually accurate
- Trauma does not necessarily lead to repression
- "recovered" memories are particularly likely to be false
- Searching for recovered memories in therapy involves a misunderstanding of the nature of the impact of trauma on children
- The most reliable memories of childhood trauma will have been present throughout the patient’s life
- Memories of childhood are best understood as "narratives"
The Princess at the Window: a new gender morality
Lamframboise, Donna (1996). Canada: Penguin Books.
Described as ‘a dissident feminist view of men, women and sexual politics’, this is another book highlighting the extreme, intolerant and dangerous direction mainstream feminism has taken. Lamboise berates the misuse of statistics to emphasis that women are victims – "a lie is still a lie, even when it’s told by feminists with good intentions". (more)
This is another book of the same genre as
‘Who stole feminism? How Women have Betrayed Women’, by Christina Hoff Sommers;
‘The morning After: Sex, Fear and Feminism’, by Katie Roiphe;
‘The New Victorians: A young woman’s response to the old feminist order’, by Rene Denefield; and
‘Sexual personae: Sex, Art and American Culture’, by Camille Paglia.
All these ‘dissident feminist’ writers express their concerns about the wrong direction modern feminism has taken, and all have been labelled as part of the backlash in an attempt to dismiss their message.
100 years ago: Doctor acquitted of assault on a female
From the Herald archives, an item about woman patient who falsely alleged assault by her Wellington doctor. It was the contradictions in the complainant’s allegations which led to the doctor’s acquittal. The judge concluded that it was "a wanton and deliberate concoction". However he noted that had she not "furnished statements of injury at variance with the physical evidence", it was quite likely that the doctor would have been convicted. Only the accuser and accused were present during the alleged occasion, as is usually the case with doctor and patient, and this meant that "medical men are singularly exposed to danger from an unscrupulous blackmailer or a vindictive woman".
(NZ Herald, 7 Aug 1996)
Single Personality Disorder
Dr Ruba Nesk offers treatment for Single Personality Disorder, "the disease that nobody wants to talk about". SPD is the clinical absence of multiple personalities. The majority of victims do not even know they suffer from it. Dr Nesk describes the devastating experience of her sister, whose date told her that she was boring and predictable, she acted the same way all evening. "Frankly", he said, "you have only one personality, and these days that’s just not good enough".
Nesk points out how SPD sufferers are discriminated against: multiples can get group discounts; can sign petitions more than once; get more than one vote; get away with murder (blame it on an evil personality); and are the subjects of books, movies and talk-shows.
If a SPD sufferer is a good actor, she might be able to cultivate other personalities; otherwise she will need twice-weekly therapy for the rest of her life to help her cope.
Rally for falsely accused of sexual abuse and rape
Freelance writer Ray Hughes organised a rally at the State Capitol building, Concord, New Hampshire, on the 14 Aug 1996, when a petition with over 1,000 signatures was submitted asking the governor, attorney general and legislator to investigate the unconstitutional nature of these prosecutions.
Ray has interviewed 60 prisoners in the New Hampshire state prison and assorted other county jails. He writes: "All were convicted of sexual assault with a complete lack of physical or other corroborating evidence. These men were sentenced to outlandish prison terms. Most of the allegations were levelled by children, most of whom, being stepchildren or living with single mothers, were also suffering the effects of broken homes. Others were even outright developmentally delayed and some were, so-called, "recovered memories". No matter the victim, however, physical evidence to even substantiate allegations of a criminal act was non-existent.
After interviewing the mothers/wives/sisters/daughters and other friends, relatives and lawyers, as well as reviewing arrest reports and trial transcripts when available, I have come to realise that a great tragedy has taken place — many innocent men have been convicted of crimes they could in no way defend themselves against. Remember, after all, in each case not only is there no forensic or corroborating evidence, but there is often no exact date or even reasonably exact date for the "crime", no evidence, even, that a crime was committed. Clearly a violation of traditional jurisprudence, as well as civil and constitutional rights."
He invited "my fellow reporters to help expose the on-going "sex assault witch hunt", which has swept too many innocent men and women in its wake. Come talk with the mothers, wives, sisters, daughters and other supporters of these men and listen yourselves to the stories of lies, overzealous prosecutors, vindictive victim advocates and fractured families."
Newsletters received by COSA
Canadian FMS Support Groups Newsletter, Jul/Aug 1996, 3 (7)
Includes an excellent interview with Canadian psychiatrist Harold Merskey and a critical appraisal of some of the "neurobiology" currently being promoted as support of recovered memories, said to belong in the realm of "neuromythology".
FMS Foundation Newsletter Sep 1996 5 (8)
Excellent coverage of American academic and legal developments in the area of recovered memories.
COSA offers a service to members of sending copies of FMSF newsletter at a cost of $30 per year (including postage).
We are on track with the setting up of a branch structure, and the documentation for our first two branches, Auckland and Christchurch, is currently underway. Further regional branches will be opened as demand and resources allow. This will make us able to provide more local services, and also attract funding which is only available on a regional basis.
Please notify COSA if you know of any recent or coming workshops, seminars and other relevant events.
Bessell van der Kolk – Seminar on trauma memory sponsored by DSAC
12 Sep 1996 Auckland Medical School
13 Sep 1996 Wellington Medical School
Professor van der Kolk has been a supporter of the recovered memory movement and recently persuaded a US judge that memory repression and recovery is accepted as a valid theory by American professionals.
Men, Women & Sex Conference
13 – 15 Sep 1996 Brisbane Australia
Conference organised by Family Planning Queensland about issues affecting male and female sexuality. Dr Felicity Goodyear-Smith will be presenting a paper entitled ‘The Politics of sexual Abuse’ at this conference.
International Congress on Stress and Health
5 – 8 Oct 1996, Sydney, Australia
Dr Felicity Goodyear-Smith will be presenting the findings of the NZ family survey of recovered memory cases at this conference.